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Title: Hormonal contraceptive use and smoking as risk factors for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in unvaccinated women aged 30–44 years: A case-control study in New South Wales, Australia
Authors: Xu H; Egger S; Velentzis LS; O'Connell DL; Banks E; Darlington-Brown J; Canfell K; Sitas F
Categories: Cancer Type - Cervical Cancer
Etiology - Exogenous Factors in the Origin and Cause of Cancer
Year: 2018
Journal Title: Cancer Epidemiology
Volume: 55
Page number start: 162
Page number end: 169
Abstract: Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines protect against HPV types 16/18, but do not eliminate the need to detect pre-cancerous lesions. Australian women vaccinated as teenage girls are now entering their mid-thirties. Since other oncogenic HPV types have been shown to be more prevalent in women ≥30 years old, understanding high grade cervical lesions in older women is still important. Hormonal contraceptives (HC) and smoking are recognised cofactors for the development of pre-malignant lesions. Methods 886 cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 and 3636 controls with normal cytology were recruited from the Pap Test Register of NSW, Australia. All women were aged 30–44 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the relationship of HC and smoking to CIN 2/3 adjusted for various factors. Results Current-users of HC were at higher risk for CIN 2/3 than never-users [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.03–2.17] and risk increased with increasing duration of use [ORs:1.13 (0.73–1.75), 1.51 (1.00–2.72), 1.82 (1.22–2.72) for <10, 10–14, ≥15 years of use; p-trend = 0.04]. Ex-users had risks similar to never-users (OR 1.08, 95%CI = 0.75–1.57) regardless of duration of use. Current smoking was significantly associated with CIN 2/3 (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.14–1.80) and risk increased with increasing number of cigarettes/day (p-trend = 0.02). Among ex-smokers, the risk of CIN 2/3 decreased with increasing time since quitting (p-trend = 0.04). Conclusions In this benchmark study, current, long term users of HC and current smokers of ≥5 cigarettes/day were each at increased risk of developing CIN 2/3. Findings support smoking cessation in relation to decreasing the risk of pre-cancerous lesions and reinforce the continuing need for cervical screening for cancer prevention in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations.
Division: Cancer Research Division
Funding Body: KC receive salary support from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (CDF #1082989)
Appears in Collections:Research Articles

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