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|Title:||Mucosal Alpha-Papillomaviruses are not associated with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Lack of Mechanistic Evidence from South Africa, China and Iran and from a World-Wide Meta-Analysis.|
|Authors:||Halec G; Schmitt M; Egger S; Abnet CC; Babb C; Dawsey SM; Flechtenmacher C; Gheit T; Hale M; Holzinger D; Malekzadeh R; Taylor PR; Tommasino M; Urban MI; Waterboer T; Pawlita M; Sitas F|
|Categories:||Cancer Type - Skin Cancer|
Etiology - Endogenous Factors in the Origin and Cause of Cancer
|Journal Title:||International Journal of Cancer|
|Abstract:||Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the causative role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unclear. We retrieved alcohol- and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues from 133 patients seropositive for antibodies against HPV early proteins, from high-incidence ESCC regions; South Africa, China, and Iran. With rigorous care to prevent nucleic acid contamination, we analyzed these tissues for the presence of 51 mucosotropic human alpha-papillomaviruses by two sensitive, broad-spectrum genotyping methods, and for the markers of HPV-transformed phenotype: (i) HPV16/18 viral loads by quantitative real-time PCR, (ii) type-specific viral mRNA by E6*I/E6 full-length RT-PCR assays and (iii) expression of cellular protein p16INK4a . Of 118 analyzable ESCC tissues, 10 (8%) were positive for DNA of HPV types: 16 (four tumors); 33, 35, 45 (one tumor each); 11 (two tumors); and 16, 70 double infection (one tumor). Inconsistent HPV DNA+ findings by two genotyping methods and negativity in qPCR indicated very low viral loads. A single HPV16 DNA+ tumor additionally harbored HPV16 E6*I mRNA but was p16INK4a negative (HPV16 E1 seropositive patient). Another HPV16 DNA+ tumor from an HPV16 E6 seropositive patient showed p16INK4a up-regulation but no HPV16 mRNA. In the tumor tissues of these serologically preselected ESCC patients, we did not find consistent presence of HPV DNA, HPV mRNA or p16INK4a up-regulation. These results were supported by a meta-analysis of 14 other similar studies regarding HPV-transformation of ESCC. Our study does not support the etiological role of the 51 analyzed mucosotropic HPV types in the ESCC carcinogenesis.|
|Division:||Cancer Research Division|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Articles|
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