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Title: The Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR): Rationale and design of an unmatched "case-spouse control" study of over 10,000 participants in New South Wales, Australia
Authors: Sitas, F
Yap, S
Egger, S
Christian, K
Hodgkinson, V
Barton, M
Banks, E
Canfell, K
O'Conell, DL
Nair-Shalliker, V
Categories: Cancer Type - All Cancers combined
Causes & Exposures - Risk factors combined
Causes & Exposures - Tobacco & Smoking
Project & Studies - The CLEAR Study
Pub. Date: 16-Apr-2015
Journal Title: Cancer Epidemiology
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The New South Wales (NSW) Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR) is an open epidemiological bioresource, using an all cancer unmatched case-spouse control design. Participant characteristics and selected confirmed associations are compared to published estimates: current smoking and lung cancer; country of birth and melanoma; body mass index (BMI) and bowel cancer; and paternal history of prostate cancer and prostate cancer, to illustrate the validity of this design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases are NSW residents, ≥18 years, with an incident cancer of any type. Controls are cancer-free spouses of cases. Participants complete a consent form, a questionnaire, and provide an optional blood sample. For analyses, odds ratios for males and females are calculated for cancers and exposures of interest, by sex-matching controls to cases. RESULTS: 10,816 participants (8569 cases, 2247 controls, 54% female) recruited to-date, median age: 61.6y cases, 61.3y controls. The top five cancer types are female breast (n=1691), prostate (n=1102), bowel (n=888), melanoma (n=608), and lung (n=265). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were: 20.65 (95% CI: 13.25-32.19) for lung cancer in current versus never smokers; 1.16 (1.05-1.28) for bowel cancer per 5kg/m2 increment in BMI; 1.41 (1.01-1.96) for melanoma in Australian-born compared to those born in UK/Ireland; and 2.47 (1.82-3.37) for prostate cancer in men with versus without a paternal history of prostate cancer. DISCUSSION: This study design, where controls are the spouses of cases diagnosed with a variety of cancers and which are analysed unmatched, avoids potential biases due to overmatching, considered problematic in standard case-spouse control studies, and illustrates that risk estimates analysed are consistent with the published literature. CLEAR methodology provides a practical design to advance local knowledge on the causes of various leading and emerging cancers.
Division: Cancer Research Division
DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.03.006
URI: http://researchpubs.cancercouncil.com.au/cancercounciljspui/handle/1/1688
Appears in Collections:Research Articles

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